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Lesson 008 [Answering the Call of Nature] 14 March 2011

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I begin with the Name of Allaah, the most Merciful, the One Who bestows Mercy

All praises and thanks be to Allaah. May Allaah mention His Messenger and grant him peace. To proceed:

Lesson 008

(Baabu Qadaa` al-Haajah)

[Answering the Call of Nature]

The scholars say that there are adaab (mannerisms) one has to observe before, during and after answering the call of nature.

يستحب لمن أراد دخول الخلاء أن يقول: بسم الله، أعوذ بالله من الخبث والخبائث، ومن الرجس النجس الشيطان الرجيم، 31

Imaam ibn Qudaamah, rahimahullaah, wrote, “It is recommended for one who enters the toilet/bathroom to say: (I enter) in the Name Allaah, I seek refuge with Allaah from al-Khubth (evil) and al-Khabaa`ith (the shayaateen), and from ar-Rijs (the foul one), an-Najis (the filthy one), the accursed Shaytaan”.

In another narration, the word al-Khubth is replaced with ‘al-Khubuthi’ (male jinn) in which case al-Khabaa`ith refers to the female jinn. This is also a valid supplication. The latter portion of the du’aa` mentioned by Imaam ibn Qudaamah, i.e. “from ar-Rijs, an-Najis, the accursed Shaytaan” is not authentic.

Narrated `Anas bin Maalik radiAllaahu ‘anhu: Whenever Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam entered the privy, he used to say, “O Allaah, I seek refuge in You from male and female devils.”
[The ‘Seven’]

The Prophet Muhammed sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “The veil (cover) between the Jinn and the private parts of human beings whenever anyone enters the bathroom is to say: Bismillah.”
[Ibn Maajah]

The authentic supplication in ‘Arabic: Bismillaah, Allahumma innee `a’oodhu-bika mina`l-khubthi (or khubuthi)  wa`l-khabaa`ith

There may be benefits in following the Sunnah of the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which may not know about, i.e. what the shayaateen do in the toilets etc.

The shayaateen may mess around with the person or whisper within them. A person should not spend too much time in the toilet; one finds that those who are afflicted by Jinn frequently visit the toilet.

32 ، وإذا خرج قال: غفرانك، الحمد لله الذي أذهب عني الأذى وعافاني.

Imaam ibn Qudaamah wrote, “When he leaves (from the toilet) he should say ‘ghufraanak’ (I seek Your (Allaah’s) forgiveness), ‘All praise be to Allaah Who rid me of harm and gave me health’.”

It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: “When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came out of the washroom, he would say, ‘Ghufraanak.’”
[at-Tirmidhee]

(Again the portion of the supplication other than saying ‘Ghufraanak’ is inauthentic)

Why does one have to seek forgiveness for something which is a natural act? Some of the scholars tried to give explanation as to why we say “Ghufraanak” after answering the call of nature.

  1. Since one cannot make dhikr of Allaah in the bathroom, one thus seeks forgiveness for not having done dhikr in that period.
  2. One goes to the toilet as a result of the food being digested etc. and because a person is often ungrateful for this process that keeps them healthy is a reason for seeking forgiveness from Allaah, subhaanahu wa ta’ala.
  3. Just as Allaah removed the physical filth from ones body, it is as if by saying ‘Ghufraanak’ one is asking Allaah to forgive the sins of their heart.

ويقدم رجله اليسرى في الدخول واليمنى في الخروج، 33

Imaam ibn Qudaamah then wrote, “He should put forward his left foot (first) when entering and (put forward) his right foot (first) when leaving.”

Imaam an-Nawawee rahimahullaah and others have mentioned that there is ittifaq (agreement of scholars within the particular school of thought) that all the praiseworthy acts are done with the right hand and all cleaning acts are done with the left.

Narrated ‘Aa`ishah radiAllaahu ‘anhuma, “Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam loved to begin with his right side while putting on his sandals, combing his hair, purifying himself, and in all his affairs.”
[Agreed Upon]

Narrated Aboo Qataadah, radiAllaahu ‘anhu: Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “None of you should touch his penis with his right hand when passing urine, or wipe himself with his right hand after relieving himself, and he must not breathe into the vessel (while drinking).”
[Agreed Upon]

ولا يدخله بشئ فيه ذكر الله تعالى إلا من حاجة34

Imaam ibn Qudaamah wrote, “And he should not enter the bathroom with anything in which Allaah is mentioned, except in case of a need.”

Narrated Anas ibn Maalik radiAllaahu ‘anhu, “When Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went to the privy, he used to take off his ring (which said Muhammadu`r-Rasoolullaah).”
[The ‘Four’ (Hadeeth is Munqatee – it has a broken chain)]

Due to its defect, the above hadeeth is not a strong proof.

ويعتمد في جلوسه على رجله اليسرى، 35

Imaam ibn Qudaamah wrote, “And during his sitting he should rest (his weight) on his left foot.”

Narrated Suraaqah bin Maalik radiAllaahu ‘anhu: Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam taught us, when in the privy, to sit on the left (foot while squatting) while propping up the right one.”
[al-Bayhaqee (Weak)]

Again there is no specific manner in which a person may sit due to the weakness of the ahaadeeth concerning this matter. The scholars thus say that whatever is easiest for the person when relieving himself should be done.

وإن كان في الفضاء أبعد واستتر،36
Imaam ibn Qudaamah wrote, “And if he is outside (in the open), he should move far away and screen himself (from the people).”

al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah radiAllaahu ‘anhu said: “I was with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) on a journey, when he felt the need to answer the call of nature, so he went far away.”
[al-Tirmidhi]

Narrated ‘Aa`ishah radiAllaahu ‘anhuma: Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “If anyone goes to relieve himself, he should hide himself from others.”
[Aboo Dawood]

Narrated Bahz ibn Hakeem, from his father, that his grandfather said: I said, O Messenger of Allaah, with regard to our ‘awrah, what may we uncover of it and what must we conceal? He said: “Cover your ‘awrah except from your wife and those whom your right hand possesses (i.e., concubines).” I said, O Messenger of Allaah, what if the people live close together? He said, “If you can make sure that no one sees it, then do not let anyone see it.” I said, O Messenger of Allaah, what if one of us is alone? He said, “Allaah is more deserving that you should feel shy before Him than people.”
[at-Tirmidhee, Abee Dawood and ibn Maajah]

Imaam an-Nawawee rahimahullaah mentioned that it is ijmaa’ that one has to go far away to relieve themselves.

Urinating in urinals is an evil practice and it is something incorrect.

ويرتاد لبوله موضعاً رخواً، 37
Imaam ibn Qudaamah wrote, “He should choose the ground (if outside) that is soft (so the urine doesn’t splash).”

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) passed by one of the gardens of Madeenah or Makkah, and he heard the sound of two persons being punished in their graves. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “They are being punished, but they are not being punished for anything that was difficult to avoid.” Then he said, “No. One of them used not to protect himself from his urine, and the other used to walk around spreading malicious gossip.” Then he called for a palm leaf, which he split in two and put one piece on each grave. It was said to him, “O Messenger of Allaah, why did you do that?’ He said, “May their punishment be reduced so long as this does not dry out (or until this dries out).”
[Agreed Upon]

Aboo Moosa al-Ash`ari radiAllaahu ‘anhu related that the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came to a low and soft part of the ground and urinated. He then said, “When one of you urinates, he should choose the proper place to do so.”
[Ahmed and Aboo Dawood]

ولا يبول في ثقب ولا شق، 38
Imaam ibn Qudaamah wrote, “He should not urinate in a hole or a crack.”

Qataadah related from ‘Abdullaah ibn Sarjas, radiAllaahu ‘anhuma, who said, “The Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam forbade urination into a hole.” Said Qataadah (to ibn Sarjas), “What is disliked about urinating into a hole?” Said he (ibn Sarjas), “It is the residence of the jinn.”
[Ahmed, an-Nasaa’ee, Aboo Dawood, al-Haakim and al-Bayhaqee]

Sa’d ibn ‘Ubaadah radiAllaahu ‘anhu was killed by the jinn when he urinated in a hole in which was their dwelling place, and they said, “We have killed the leader of Khazraj Sa’d ibn ‘Ubaadah; we struck him with an arrow and we did not miss his heart.”

At the time of ‘Umar, a man was kidnapped by the jinn and stayed with them for four years, then he came back and told the people that some mushrik jinn had kidnapped him, and he stayed with them as a prisoner, then some Muslim jinn launched a campaign against them and defeated them, and brought him back to his family. This was mentioned in Manaar al-Sabeel and elsewhere.
[al-Bayhaqee]

ولا طريق ولا ظل نافع، ولا تحت شجرة مثمرة، 39
Imaam ibn Qudaamah wrote, “(Nor should he urinate) on a path/road, (a place of) beneficial shade or under a fruitful tree.”

Narrated Aboo Hurayrah radiAllaahu ‘anhu: Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Safeguard yourselves from the two matters that cause cursing (that befalls) the one who relieves himself on the people’s path-ways and under their (places of ) shade.”
[Muslim]

If one urinates in those places and someone else who visits those places (as expected) and gets their garments dirty may curse (la’an) the person who urinated there.

As for urinating under a fruitful tree then it is makrooh (and not haraam), since there is no guarantee that the fruits of that tree will be affected by the urine (and as a result harmful to the eater).

Something that is nourished upon filth, it too is filthy.
[Maxim of Sharee’ah]

40، ولا يستقبل شمساً ولا قمراً، ولا يستقبل القبلة،

Imaam ibn Qudaamah wrote, “He should not face the direction of the Sun or the Moon, and he should not face the direction of the Qiblah.”

The opinion of not facing the Sun or the Moon when answering the call of nature is incorrect. Some of the scholars said that one should not do that because of the nobility of the Sun and the Moon in terms of being Signs of Allaah. However it has no valid proof from the Sunnah.

Narrated Aboo Ayyoob al-Ansaaree, radiAllaahu ‘anhu: Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Neither face nor turn your back to the Qiblah while defecating or urinating, but turn towards the east or the west.”
[Reported by the “Seven”]

The Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made that statement in Madeenah, and the direction of Qiblah for the people of Madeenah is towards the South. So they were advised to face the East or the West. For people of different localities, the direction of Qiblah may vary; hence the direction they should face when relieving themselves will vary as well and not necessarily be towards the East or the West.

ولا يستدبرها لقول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: لا تستقبلوا القبلة بغائط ولا بول ولا تستدبروها41

Imaam ibn Qudaamah then wrote, “Nor (should he) turn his back to the Qiblah, because of the saying of the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Neither face nor turn your back to the Qiblah while defecating or urinating, but turn towards the east or the west.”

The Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prohibited the people from facing the Qiblah or turning their back towards the Qiblah when relieving themselves.

ويجوز ذلك في البنيان42

Imaam ibn Qudaamah wrote, “(Turning ones face or back) is permissible inside a building.”

Narrated ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Umar, radiAllaahu ‘anhu: People say, “Whenever you sit for answering the call of nature, you should not face the Qiblah or Baitu`l-Maqdis (Jerusalem).” I told them. “Once I went up the roof of our house and I saw Allaah’s Apostle answering the call of nature while sitting on two bricks facing Bait-ul-Maqdis (Jerusalem) (but there was a screen covering him.”
[Bukhaaree]

This hadeeth seems to contradict the former, that one should not face or turn their back towards the Qiblah. One should note that it is impossible for two texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah to contradict each other and there must be a way to reconcile them.

Imaam ash-Shawkaanee said, that if you have the saying of the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and you have the action of the Prophet; his saying is (legislation) for the Ummah, as for his action we do not know whether this is specific for him or legislated to the Ummah, and if we get such contradictions, then we say that his actions are specific to him and his statements are legislation.

So according to some of the scholars and Imaam ash-Shawkaanee, they say that it was not impermissible for the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to face or turn his back towards the Qiblah.

The Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commanded us not to face or turn our backs towards the Qiblah possibly due to the disrespect involved. So the question may arise can he be exempted from such a thing? So we must reconcile the hadeeth because it seems not possible for the Prophet to be exempted from this.

For example, if the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was generalized with everyone when marrying a limited amount of four wives, then had he divorced one of his wives, she would be unable to marry another man, since this is not permitted, hence to prevent harm to come upon her it was allowed for the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam specifically to marry more than four wives.

Some of the fuqahaah said that the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam urinated in a built-up place, so it was permissible. However other scholars did not accept this, since no matter where a person is there may be a building between them and the Ka’bah even if they are miles away.

Other scholars said that it is makrooh to face or turn ones back to the Qiblah.

Furthermore, other scholars said that the hadeeth was general in terms of facing the Qiblah (so that is haraam), as for turning ones back towards the Qiblah it is makrooh (in any place).

Other scholars differed further, and said that it is makrooh to turn ones back towards the Qiblah (with the addition) in a built-up place. They say this because if one is to make an exception from a hadeeth they have to take into account all the conditions and details mentioned in that specific hadeeth.

Other scholars said that turning ones back is the same as facing the Qiblah in terms of disrespect.

Many of these arguments are justified and no one can claim that theirs is the true opinion.

The madh-hab holds the opinion that inside a building one may face the Qiblah or turn ones back to it.

In terms of Usool, the stronger opinion is that one may turn ones back in a built up place, because this is the way the specific case came in the hadeeth of ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar. The rule is that generally it is prohibited to face or turn ones back to the Qiblah in open space and in a built up place, with the exception of turning ones back (only) to the Qiblah in built up places.

43، وإذا انقطع البول مسح من أصل ذكره إلى رأسه ثم ينتره ثلاثاً

Imaam ibn Qudaamah then wrote, “If he finishes urinating, he should squeeze his organ from the base to the end and he should do this three times.”

This has no basis in the Sunnah and the hadeeth that is mentioned regarding this from Musnad Imaam Ahmed is da’eef (weak).

Narrated ‘Eesaa bin Yazdaad from his father radiAllaahu ‘anhuma: Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “When one of you passes urine, he should forcibly push out (any urine remaining in) his penis – three times.” (It is graded Da’eef (weak))
[Ibn Maajah]

Shaikhu`l-Islaam ibn Taymeeyyah said that doing this act (to remove remaining urine) may even cause harm to an individual.

ولا يمس ذكره بيمينه، ولا يستجمر بها44

Imaam ibn Qudaamah then wrote, “He should not use his right hand to touch his private part nor should he wipe with it (when using stones or tissue etc.).”

Narrated Aboo Qataadah radiAllaahu ‘anhu: Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “No one should touch his penis with his right hand when urinating, nor clean himself (from defecation or urine) using his right hand, nor breathe in the utensil (he is drinking from).”
[Agreed Upon]

Some scholars say that since the hadeeth mentions not touching ones private parts for cleaning or urinating, then one may touch their private part with their right hand at any other time. This seems to be more consistent with the hadeeth.

بها ثم يستجمر وتراً45

ثم يستنجي بالماء46

فإن اقتصر على الاستجمار أجزأه47

Imaam ibn Qudaamah then wrote, “Then he should perform istijmaar (cleansing with pebbles or tissue) an odd number of times. Then he should perform istinjaa’ (cleansing with water). If he done only istijmaar, then that is sufficient.”

In some occasions the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam performed istijmaar only and did not use water.

“Never stand you therein. Verily, the mosque whose foundation was laid from the first day on piety is more worthy that you stand therein (to pray). In it are men who love to clean and to purify themselves. And Allâh loves those who make themselves clean and pure (i.e. who clean their private parts with dust [i.e. to be considered as soap) and water from urine and stools, after answering the call of nature].”
[Soorat at-Taubah (009:108)]

Allaah subhaanahu wa ta’ala revealed that Verse regarding the people of Quba (Ahlu`l-Quba), and said that these are the people who love to clean and purify themselves, because they used to perform istinjaa’ all the time. This was an act of excellence, and not a requirement. Since if it was a requirement, Allaah would not have praised the Ahlu`l-Quba over the rest of the people.

وإنما يجزئ الاستجمار إذا لم يتعد الخارج موضع الحاجة48،

Imaam ibn Qudaamah wrote, “Istijmaar would only suffice so long as the impurity does not go beyond the place it normally comes out of.”

So in the case where the excrement may go beyond the place where the excrement comes out from, then in that situation one should use water for nothing removes these form of impurity except for water.

ولا يجزئ أقل من ثلاث مسحات منقية49

Imaam ibn Qudaamah wrote, “It is not enough to use less than three wipes (even) that removes the filth and each of those wipes should cause him to become cleaner.”

Narrated ibn Mas’ood radiAllaahu ‘anhu: “The Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went to relieve himself and commanded me to bring three stones; I found two stones but could not find a third, so I brought a piece of dried dung. He took the stones and threw away the dung, and said, “This is rijs (anything which is impure, filthy, abominable).
[Bukhaaree]

Ahmed and ad-Daaraqutnee added, “Bring me another one (instead of the dung).”

When a person uses paper towels, they have to use it at least three times, and if the area is not cleaned, then one has to continue cleaning themselves until it is cleaned and this must be done an odd number of times.

Some of the mushrikeen used to taunt Salmaan al-Farsee radiAllaahu ‘anhu that the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam taught the Muslims how to do everything, even how to visit the bathroom, and Salmaan al-Farsee replied:

Narrated Salmaan radiAllaahu ‘anhu: Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam forbade us to face the Qiblah when defecating or urinating, or to clean ourselves (Istinjaa’) using the right hand, or to clean ourselves with less than three stones, or to clean ourselves with dung or a bone.
[Muslim]

ويجوز الاستجمار بكل طاهرو50

51يكون منقياً

52إلا الروث والعظام،

53وما له حرمة.

54وما له حرمة

Imaam ibn Qudaamah then wrote, “It is permissible to make istijmaar with anything that is taahir  and would remove the impurity, except dung and bones, and anything that is sacred. “

Dawood reported from ‘Amir who said: I asked ‘Alqama if Ibn Mas’ood was present with the Messenger of Allaah (may peace be upon him) on the night of the Jinn (the night when the Holy Prophet met them). He (Ibn Mas’ood) said: No, but we were in the company of the Messenger of Allaah (may peace be upon him) one night and we missed him. We searched for him in the valleys and the hills and said. He has either been taken away (by jinn) or has been secretly killed. He (the narrator) said. We spent the worst night which people could ever spend. When it was dawn we saw him coming from the side of Hiri’. He (the narrator) reported. We said: Messenger of Allaah, we missed you and searched for you, but we could not find you and we spent the worst night which people could ever spend. He (the Holy Prophet) said: There came to me an inviter on behalf of the Jinn and I went along with him and recited to them the Qur’aan. He (the narrator) said: He then went along with us and showed us their traces and traces of their embers. They (the Jinn) asked him (the Holy Prophet) about their provision and he said: Every bone on which the name of Allaah is recited is your provision. The time it will fall in your hand it would be covered with flesh, and the dung of (the camels) is fodder for your animals. The Messenger of Allaah (may peace be upon him) said: Don’t perform istinja with these (things) for these are the food of your brothers (Jinn).
[Muslim]

Narrated Aboo Huraira: That once he was in the, company of the Prophet carrying a water pot for his ablution and for cleaning his private parts. While he was following him carrying it(i.e. the pot), the Prophet said, “Who is this?” He said, “I am Aboo Huraira.” The Prophet said, “Bring me stones in order to clean my private parts, and do not bring any bones or animal dung.” Aboo Huraira went on narrating: So I brought some stones, carrying them in the corner of my robe till I put them by his side and went away. When he finished, I walked with him and asked, “What about the bone and the animal dung?” He said, “They are of the food of Jinns. The delegate of Jinns of (the city of) Nasibin came to me–and how nice those Jinns were–and asked me for the remains of the human food. I invoked Allah for them that they would never pass by a bone or animal dung but find food on them.”
[Bukhaaree]

It is not permissible to clean oneself using something that is impure (naajis). Likewise it is not permissible to use dung (even that of the animals permissible to eat) because the dung is the food for the animal of the Jinn; and bone is the food for the Jinn.

Likewise, anything that is sacred may not be used to clean oneself since that would be showing disrespect. So anything with the Name of Allaah, the books of Knowledge etc. cannot be used to clean oneself.

To summarise the etiquettes of visiting the bathroom:

  1. Before going into the bathroom one should seek refuge with Allaah with the aforementioned du’aa`
  2. One should enter the bathroom with the left foot and exit with the right foot
  3. One should not face or turn their back towards the Qiblah (except turning ones back in a built-up area)
  4. One should use three or more stones for istijmaar
  5. One should only use their left hand for cleaning themselves
  6. One should not make dhikr of Allaah inside the bathroom
  7. One should remain far away and secluded from people when relieving themselves
  8. Upon leaving one should seek the forgiveness of Allaah
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Comments»

1. Umme - 15 March 2011

Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem

Assalaamu ‘alaikum warahmatullaahi wabarakatuh

“…and he must not breathe into the vessel (while drinking).”
[Agreed Upon]

Does this apply to things like when one is drinking hot tea and what if this is just a habit now and one finds it difficult to stop (due to it being a habit)?

Also, is it stated elsewhere why this is not allowed?

Wa JazakAllaahu Khayran

2. istislaam - 15 March 2011

wa ‘alaykumu`s-salaam wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh

It is haraam to breathe or blow into whatever food/drink is in the utensil to make it cooler etc. for that will bring about germs from the mouth and may put off another person who is probably sharing that food/drink and harm them as well.

As for the habit of blowing into hot tea, then habits can be changed over time inshaa`Allaah.

The only exception some scholars made was in the case of necessity, in that case a person may blow into their food/drink to make it cooler, but still that is undesirable.

wAllaahu a’lam

* * * * * * * * * *

Hadeeth from another Sahaabah:

It was narrated from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade blowing into one’s drink. Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (1887) who said: a saheeh hasan hadeeth. It was also classed as saheeh by Ibn al-Qayyim in I’laam al-Muwaqqi’een (4/317).

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Sharh Riyadh al-Saaliheen (2/457):
That is because if a person blows (into the vessel), some harmful things may come with the air that is exhaled, such as disease and the like. But some of the scholars made an exception in cases of necessity, such as if the drink is hot and he needs to drink it quickly. In that case some scholars granted a concession. But it is better not to blow on it, even if it is hot. If it is hot and he has another vessel, then he may pour some of it into that vessel then pour it back until it cools down. End quote.

[Summarised extract from IslamQA – the site currently redirects to Shaikh Muhammed al-Munajjid’s main site for some reason, so can’t provide the proper link… inshaa`Allaah this is temporary and the site will be back up soon]


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